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Sorbic acid
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Sorbic acid

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Sorbic acid

Historical information
Sorbic acid
is for the first time received by Hoffman in 1859 from mountain ash juice. Its antimicrobic action was revealed in 1939 Müller (Germany) and is independent, several months later, Gooding (USA). Industrial production of sorbic acid has begun in the mid-fifties. Since then it in escalating scales is used for conservation of foodstuff. Owing to physiological safety and organoleptic neutrality sorbic acid is preferred even more often to other preservatives. Sorbic acid represents monoklinny crystals, white, poorly smelling, sourish on taste, with fusion point of 132 — 135 °C. At the room temperature solubility (on 100 g of solvent) eorbinovy acid makes: in water — 0,16 g, in 10% solution of table salt — 0,07 g, in anhydrous ethanol and in acetic acid — about 13 g, in oils — 0,5 — 1 g.

Sorbate of potassium represents white powder or granules. It is the most soluble of sorbates. At the room temperature its solubility in water is equal to 138 g, and in 10% solution of table salt — 54 g.

Calcium sorbate — white, flavourless and taste the powder similar to talc. Its solubility in water makes 1,2 g.

Sorbic acid, sorbate of potassium and especially calcium sorbate, despite two double bonds in molecule, in firm state are very stable. In solutions in the presence of oxygen there is oxidation which can be followed by emergence of brown coloring. However at conservation of foodstuff it is not essential because foodstuff, as a rule, spoils before oxidation of eorbinovy acid becomes noticeable; many food ingredients (fats, aromatic components) are much more sensitive to oxidation, than sorbic acid.

Analytical data
Sorbic acid can be emitted quantitatively from the studied foodstuff with steam distillation. For the quality and quantitative test the red coloring received at oxidation by its potassium dichromate in the presence of 2-thiobarbituric acid is used. As polyunsaturated connection, sorbic acid has clear maximum of absorption about 260 nanometers which can be used for the quantitative analysis. Sorbic acid can be defined by VEZhH; along with it the benzoic and salicylic acids and parabens (motionless phase usually RP-18, UF-detecting are defined at wavelength about 230 nanometers). This method is offered for definition of eorbinovy acid in any foodstuff, sorbates and other preservatives in cheese, yogurt, fruit juices and wine.

The industry receives sorbic acid from ketine and crotonic aldehyde. As intermediate product polymeric ether is formed
Fatty products. Sorbic acid has favorable (in comparison with other preservatives) distribution coefficient between oil and water therefore in water oil emulsions rather high share of sorbitic acid (sorbates) remains in aqueous phase, namely this phase and is subject to bacteriological damage. At conservation of margarine sorbic acid is used in concentration of 0,05-0,1%. It is added to oil phase, and potassium sorbate — to water.

Sorbates are applied in mayonnaise (which represents emulsions like "oil in water" or the return tipa9" and is inclined to bacteriological damage) and the delicacies containing mayonnaise. For prevention of development of lactic bacteria enter mix of sorbate of potassium and sodium benzoate into subacidic products.

Dairy products. Cheeses of all grades — the main area of use of sorbic acid. It is applied as preservative owing to efficiency at high values rn and specific action on mold fungi. Sorbic acid and sorbates are applied to hard cheeses both during maturing, and at storage in interior package. At the same time special role is played by effect of sorbic acid against mikotoksinobrazuyu-shchy microorganisms.

Sorbic acid is applied generally next ways:
1) add to cheese curd samoyo acid or sorbate of potassium;
2) add potassium sorbate to brine;
3) use crystalline sorbic acid for sprinkling of cheese;
4) water solution of sorbate of potassium process cheese by okunaniye, sprayings or washings;
5) suspension of sorbate of calcium process maturating hard cheese;
6) use sorbic acid, sorbates of potassium and calcium in fungistatic wrappings and coverings.

Sorbic acid add to cheese to concentration 0,05-0,07% |81, 82]. The surface treatment of maturating cheese requires 10-40 g of sorbic acid on 1 sq.m, and for fungistatic wrappings — 2-4 g/m2

Meat products. Processing by 10-20% solution of sorbate of potassium suppresses growth of mold fungi on firm sausages and sausages |85, 86]. Attempts to protect from activators of damage and toksinobrazuyushchy microorganisms beef 187, 881 and fowl, their immersion in 5-10% solution of sorbate of potassium were made. Together with reasonable cooling and vacuum packaging such way allows to increase expiration date considerably.

In works the possibility of use of sorbic acid instead of nitrite or in combination with the reduced its quantity for restriction of growth of clostridiums and other toksinobrazuyushchy bacteria in corned beef was considered. Earlier, as a result of experiences on nutrient mediums, the conclusion has been made that sorbic acid is not effective against these microorganisms. However new researches have shown that in meat products, at rn about 6, the combination of sorbates to small amount of nitrites and (or) phosphates suppresses clostridiums (including formation of toxins by them) and other bacteria at least as much as nitrites in the concentration applied now. Besides, in vitro sorbic acid slows down formation of some nitrosamines. However neither sorbic acid, nor sorbate of potassium can be used instead of nitrite as do not give to meat of red coloring and do not promote aroma development of pickles

Fish products. In combination with salting, cooling and vacuum packaging sorbic acid has antibacterial effect on fresh fish and by that reduces formation of trimethylamine and other undesirable olfactive matters and suppresses growth pathogenic microorganism. Because of rather high activity against mold fungi it is applied for conservation of dried fish, inclined to molding, for example cods. Great practical value has use of sorbic acid in vostoch-noaziatsky fish products of light salting.

Vegetable products. Sorbic acid in the form of water-soluble sorbates is used for conservation of fermented (fermented) and pickled vegetables. Advantage of sorbates in this case — rather weak effect of sorbic acid against lactic bacteria. If to the vegetables put on fermentation add 0,05-0,15% (depending on content of salt to them) potassium sorbate, then desirable lactic fermentation is almost not oppressed; on the contrary, sorbic acid suppresses development of harmful yeast and mold fungi and by that promotes fermentation. Exit of ready cucumbers when using sorbic acid was 20% higher, than without it. For cucumbers and olives add 0,1-0,2% of sorbate of potassium to the marinades containing vinegar to protect them from yeast and mold fungi. Potassium sorbate for conservation of East Asian fermented vegetable products and spicy sauces is widely used. At conservation that-matoproduktov sorbic acid is often applied in combination with table salt and (or) vinegar.

Fruit products. Sorbic acid in concentration of 0,05% is used for conservation of ready-to-serve prunes which are made soaking of strongly dried up fruits. Because of aktivnosti91 waters they are subject only to molding |98 |. Fruit pulps can be protected from fermentation and molding by additive of 0,1-0,13% of sorbate of potassium. However, sorbic acid does not counteract oxidation and enzymic spoilage; therefore in such products it is used in combination with small amount of dioxide of sulfur. In jams, because of the high content of sugar 0,05% of sorbic acid are enough to add jam and jelly. Are often limited to surface treatment of the packaged products. In some countries sorbic acid is applied as preservative at house production of such products

Drinks. For conservation of pure fruit juices everything that has been told about fruit pulps is fair. Sorbate of potassium is used mainly for conservation of the fruit juices intended for further processing. Usually it is applied together with small amounts of brimstone gas to protect product also from oxidation, bacterial (lactic and acetic fermentation) and enzymic spoilage. For inactivation of enzymes and reduction of number of microorganisms the product will be in addition pasteurized. Concentration of sorbate of potassium makes 0,05-0,2% depending on type of juice and required expiration date. Potassium sorbate in concentration of 0,02% protects the soft refreshing drinks from damage by yeast.

Bakery goods. Sorbic acid has the general property with the propionic acid (which is widely used in conservation of bakery goods) — it keeps efficiency in the field of high values rn. In comparison with propionates sorbic acid shows much stronger antimicrobic action, especially concerning cretaceous mold (Trichosporon variabile) appearing sometimes on rye bread. Sorbic acid in number of 0,1 — 0,2% to the mass of flour is added to test batch time.

In bakery goods, first of all in bread, sorbic acid is used not only for the economic reasons, but also because of its action on aflatoksinobrazuyushchy microorganisms. Use of sorbic acid in vypechny products does not create problems when as baking powder baking powder, but not yeast, for example in cakes and other pastries is used. In this case 0,1 — 0,2% of sorbic acid are rubbed into dough (depending on type of product and required period of storage). In the grain test because of strong effect of sorbic acid against yeast there can be problems with fermentation. Delay of fermentation should be compensated by increase in amount of yeast and (or) time of fermentation. Instead of sorbic acid in yeast dough it was offered to use mixed anhydride of sorbic and palmitic acids (sorboilpalmitat). This connection does not slow down fermentation, but also does not possess antimicrobic action. In the course of pastries it is split, forming free sorbic acid which protects finished bread from mold. However this preparation is too expensive to broad application. Instead of it it was offered to use sorbic acid with certain size of granules which is slowly dissolved in test preparation time, without influencing fermentation, and in finished bread works at full capacity. The product goes on sale under the name Panosorb.

Confectionery. Sorbic acid owing to neutral taste, efficiency in the field of high rn and effectiveness against osmophilic yeast is applied to conservation of fillers of chocolate and praline. Concentration from 0,05 to 0,2%, depending on contents in product of sugar, acids and from other factors influencing preservative effect are used.
Information is up-to-date: 08.10.2020
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